Transatlantic carriers slash capacity

By Brendan Sobie

The party is over. After five consecutive summers of big capacity gains on the North Atlantic, capacity between the USA and Europe is down about 8% this summer. But demand is down even more, prompting some carriers to plan further capacity cuts for later this year which will likely spill into 2010.Continental president Jeff Smisek sums up the mood: “The transatlantic is fairly ugly right now.”

According to Craig Jenksof Airline/Aircraft Projects, a consultancy which tracks transatlantic capacity changes: “The bottom line is it’s not looking particularly good in the near-term. But I think there are reasons to be more optimistic in the long-term as the North Atlantic is an extremely cyclical market. We’ll get over this but the question is when – by the summer of 2010 or will it take longer?”

The last major fall occurred in 2002, when carriers slashed transatlantic capacity by about 15% in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. In response to the current downturn, just about every major US and European carrier has cut transatlantic capacity. Some smaller carriers, including bmi and Malev, have even pulled out of the market entirely. But Jenks says compared withthe 12-13% dip in transatlantic RPKs in recent months, compounded by substantial yield drops,the 8% capacity cut currently planned for July seems inadequate. “The question is, ‘does it get a bit better this summer?'” he asks. “If it doesn’t they will have to make more cuts in October.”

Scissors cutting cloth (445)

Some carriers are already planning additional cuts. For example, Delta Air Lines in March unveiled plans to slash international capacity by 10% from September. Delta, which has overtaken Lufthansa and British Airways to become the largest transatlantic carrier when including its new Northwest Airlines subsidiary, is now deciding which markets to trim. But it but does not plan to shrink the size of its overall transatlantic network, which has more than doubled in recent years to nearly 50 destinations.

Delta senior vice-president network planning Bob Cortelyou stresses it is “extremely important” to keep the network intact so the carrier is in a good position when there is a recovery. “Despite adjustments for the economic downturn, we continue to be the leader across the Atlantic and plan to continue to keep that position,” Cortelyou says.

The other four US carriers that operate across the Atlantic – Continental, American, United Airlines and US Airways – also stress they intend to cut frequencies rather than destinations as they attempt to realign capacity to meet shrinking demand. “We continue to maintain the breadth of our network serving roughly the same number of cities as we did in 2008,” says United chief operating officer John Tague.

Over the last year only one US carrier has entirely pulled out of a European city – Continental, which last September exited Cologne. Delta/Northwest has discontinued several transatlantic routes, including Atlanta-Shannon, Atlanta-Vienna, Detroit-Dusseldorf, Seattle-London and Cincinnati-Rome, but all these European cities are still served from other hubs in the US.

European carriers have been a bit more aggressive at entirely eliminating gateways, with Alitalia and Aer Lingus pulling out of Los Angeles and Austrian Airlines dropping Chicago. SAS will also leave Seattle at the end of July. In addition, bmi has dropped Chicago and Las Vegas and Malev has dropped New York as part of their termination of all transatlantic services.

But the four largest European carriers across the Atlantic – British Airways, Lufthansa, Air France and Virgin Atlantic – have strived to keep their entire US networks intact. While Lufthansa has reduced transatlantic capacity by 4% this summer through frequencies cuts and gauge changes, vice-president Americas Jens Bischof emphasises the carrier has “no plans for giving up destinations”.


Europe’s major carriers, however, seem to have put a hold on any expansion of their transatlantic networks until after the downturn. The only European carriers adding US gateways this summer are niche leisure operators such as Spain’s Air Europa. US majors are more aggressive and are refusing to let the economic downturn keep it from expanding their transatlantic networks.

Delta, for example, is adding Valencia, a city in Spain that previously had no transatlantic service. While it decided against going forward with another planned new route, New York JFK-Gothenburg, and has pushed back the launch of Raleigh/Durham-Paris until 2010, Delta is also going ahead and launching Pittsburgh-Paris, JFK-Prague and JFK-Zurich.

Cortelyou is confident all the new routes will be successful and points to Delta’s track record of successful launches in recent years. Last year Delta launched seven new routes between the USA and Europe and not one has been terminated. “We are generally pleased with the response to last year’s transatlantic launches, considering the worldwide economic downturn and its impact on airline travel,” Cortelyou says.

US Airways is also adding two new European gateways this summer – Birmingham and Oslo – which will be served from its main transatlantic hub in Philadelphia. It is also resuming service between Charlotte and Paris after an eight-year hiatus. US Airways senior vice-president of schedule planning and alliances Andrew Nocella says Charlotte-Paris bookings are particularly strong and the carrier is “excited about what that means” for future growth from the Charlotte hub.

But overall Nocella acknowledges demand on European routes remains weak with Nocella singling out the UK market as the weakest. “London is not performing where we need it to perform,” he says, adding flights to Gatwick are showing the most deterioration.

US Airways had a rough first quarter on the North Atlantic, with unit revenues falling 20% year-over-year. “We expect that both Latin [America] and the Atlantic will under-perform domestic by an even wider margin in the second quarter,” predicts US Airways president Scott Kirby.

Nocella says the economic crisis has forced US Airways to freeze plans to transition some of its seasonal transatlantic routes to annual offerings and scale back frequencies. For example, Birmingham and Shannon will only be served five times per week, instead of seven as originally planned. Kirby adds the carrier, which so far has only cut international capacity by 2%, is prepared to make additional cuts in response to anaemic demand.

However, Kirby points out that even though international performance is weakening more rapidly than domestic, it is likely to turn a higher profit than the carrier’s domestic operations. “It [international flying] starts from a higher and more profitable base,” he says.

It is a similar story at Continental. Chief executive Larry Kellner says, despite a rapid decline in premium revenues, Continental’s international operation remains profitable and therefore the carrier has no plans to eliminate gateways. “As we look at how we focus our capacity going forward, obviously we’re going to make the right fine-turning adjustments on frequency and day of the week,” he says.Continental has already trimmed international capacity and is planning a further 1% cut from September. That will give it an ASK decline of 7-8% in September.

It now projects a 25% year-over-year drop in transatlantic yields for the second quarter, driven by lower business class load factors and revenues. “This is a time when we’re grateful for our relatively lower percentage of business and first seats versus coach seats, compared with our competitors,” Smisek says. “Or, put another way, we’re really grateful to be flying so many 757-200s to Europe.”

Continental, which has used the 757 to launch over 20 European gateways over the last decade, has by far the largest narrowbody transatlantic operation. Over the last few years its US counterparts US Airways, Delta and Northwest have also turned to 757s to expand their transatlantic networks.

This summer American is following their lead and using 757s to replace 767s on select transatlantic routes, giving the carrier a new option for decreasing capacity in response to falling demand. American says the first of 18 upgraded 757s replaced a 767 in May on the New York JFK-Brussels route. A second 757 will be used from August to replace a 767 between JFK and Barcelona.


American is now in the process of upgrading another 16 757s with winglets and new lie-flat business class seats. American senior vice-president planning Henry Joyner says the 757s will be used mainly out of the northeast US for thinner European markets.

“Our first 757 applications will be in replacing 767s in some markets, especially where there is more than one flight,” says Joyner, adding: “The product that we put in the front cabin will be perfectly competitive with anyone else’s. Its size and economics at that range make it pretty attractive.”

The introduction of the 757s on transatlantic operations will help American further trim capacity across the Atlantic. Through the first four months of 2009, the carrier’s transatlantic capacity was down 3%. This was driven by frequency cuts, as American has not yet pulled out of any European market entirely.

So far American has cut one of its five Chicago-London Heathrow frequencies and one of two Los Angeles-Heathrow frequencies. Ithas also decided to cut, in August,its third daily frequency on Boston-Heathrow, which it only began operating earlier this year.

American has not yet unveiled additional capacity cuts for later this year, saying it is “waiting on more visibility”. Joyner explains: “It is hard to tell because a lot of leisure traffic is booking much closer to departure than before. March is typically a heavy period for us because of holidays [in the US] and we saw people booking closer to departure and one school of thought is maybe that is what we will see in the summer too.”

He adds that one of the current challengesis “for the last year, when the dollar was relatively weak, it was very attractive for Europeans to come to the US”. That is no longer the case and, in the face of a lack of consumer confidence, North Atlantic traffic “is very challenged this year”.

But that isnot stopping American, which traditionally has focused its transatlantic operation at Chicago O’Hare and New York JFK, from expanding its offering at its Dallas/Ft Worth hub. American is adding a third daily flight from Dallas to Heathrow and a new flight to Madrid, where it can link up with oneworld partner Iberia. “Given the state of the traffic across the North Atlantic, we are very cautious. The connectivity with Iberia will be better and [because of Open Skies] we can codeshare [beyond Madrid] more effectively on the other side,” Joyner says.

American is confident it will also get a boost from its proposed agreement with oneworld partners British Airways, Iberia, Finnair and Royal Jordanian. The US Department of Transportationis currently reviewing the carriers’ antitrust immunity application. “While we can’t make promises about the outcome of the process, we believe we have made a very strong case and we continue to expect that approval will occur in the second half of this year,” says American chief financial officer Tom Horton.

United Airlines is also keeping its transatlantic network intact despite overall capacity cuts and a 13% first quarter drop in passenger unit revenues. In fact United has added two European destinations this year, Geneva and Moscow, both which are being served out of its main transatlantic hub at Washington Dulles. It also has resumed services to London Heathrow from Denver, which it launched last year, but cut in October. United says the new routes further strengthen its international route network and expand its transatlantic portfolio to 31 daily flights this summer.

United is also expanding its reach in Europe through a new partnership with Aer Lingus. United reached a deal with Aer Lingus in January to co-brand Aer Lingus-operated flights between Madrid and Washington Dulles,slated to commence in 2010.

United senior vice-president alliances and regulatory affairs Mike Whitaker says United is anxious to watch the performance of the new service, explaining Washington-Madrid would be a test for deeper ties between the two carriers. This unusual transatlantic co-operation builds on a codesharing agreement between United and Aer Lingus that took effect last November.


United’s Tague stresses that its transatlantic network is already bolstered through co-operation with Star Alliance partners. In April United and fellow alliance members Air Canada and Lufthansa, as well as prospective Star member Continental Airlines were granted tentative DOT approval for a transatlantic joint venture.

While Lufthansa is reducing transatlantic capacity by 4% this summer, this is being achieved as it increases the density of some of its aircraft. The German carrier is temporarily re-adjusting the configuration of its Boeing 747-400 fleet, which is used to link Frankfurt with 10 US destinations, with an extra 22 economy seats.

On US routes, Lufthansa’s Swiss subsidiary is also introducing Airbus A330-300s, which have 40 more economy class seats than the A330-200s they replace.With the A330-300s Swiss is also introducing newly-enhanced first and business class products just as premium demand falls off the cliff. “You have to have a wider or complete view,” says new Swiss chief executive Harry Hohmeister. “It is important that we go with our philosophy and strategy. An investment like the A330-300 is an investment for 20 years. This differentiates us from other airlines.”

Jenks says Swiss is not the only transatlantic carrier upgrading its premium product just as premium demand plummets. But Jenks adds the cabin upgrades for the most part are resulting in fewer overall seats, as lie-flat seats take up more space than the traditional seats they are replacing.

He adds transatlantic ASKs are also being driven down by cutting a disproportionate amount of flights to the US west coast, compared with shorter flights to the east coast. He explains transatlantic flights to the US west coast are easier targets because they “are more expensive to operate and you can carry that traffic via other US gateways”. He adds Los Angeles, in particular, “is taking a huge cut”, losing about 25% of its transatlantic flights.

Seattle has also taken a hit, with SAS dropping Copenhagen and Northwest dropping London. But Icelandair has moved quickly to fill the void left by SAS. In late July it will launch four weekly flights to Seattle from Reykjavik, with quick connections to Copenhagen and five other cities in Scandinavia.

Icelandair chief executive Birkir Holm Gudnason says the carrier was attracted to the route because Seattle-Scandinavia is already a well established market, with SAS having served it exclusively for over 40 years. He expects 70% of the passengers on Icelandair’s new Seattle flight will be Americans from the west coast heading to Scandinavia, or Scandinavians going to the US west coast. “This is the first time in history we’ve gone into an established market,” Gudnason says. “Basically we’re taking over a developed market.”

He adds Icelandair has been studying Seattle for a decade but always hesitated because it thought there was too much capacity in the market. “When SAS announced in February they would quickly cut the route we basically decided in two weeks, after analysing the route and talking to the airport, that we would go in,” Gudnason says.


Icelandair had the flexibility to react so quickly because it can temporarily borrow a 757 from a sister carrier. Gudnason says Icelandair is now monitoring several other potential markets and is ready to pounce if there is an opportunity in the current downturn. “We’re looking at 10 to 20 potential gateways in the US and Europe, but we won’t go in to add capacity. We will only go in if someone else pulls out,” he says. “We can easily go if there’s an opportunity.”

While most transatlantic carriers struggle and look to cut rather than add capacity, Gudnason says Icelandair had the “best first quarter in history” and summer bookings are encouraging. He says while fewer Icelanders have been traveling since the onset of Iceland’s financial crisis, this is being more than offset by an uptick in passengers holidaying in Iceland to take advantage of the devalued local currency.

He also points out while premium demand is down about 10%, Icelandair relies more on leisure traffic compared with other transatlantic carriers, where premium demand is down 20-40%. “We’re pretty happy with what we are seeing. We’re seeing similar bookings as last summer,” Gudnason says. “At least the first nine months of the year are looking good. In this industry, the fourth quarter is something no one can predict.”

Icelandair is not the only transatlantic carrier which sees a silver lining in the current climate. Continental’s Kellner says the downturn helped the carrier acquire an additional slot at London Heathrow to enable it to shift its summer-only Cleveland service from London Gatwick.

“We were able to find somebody who had a slot for the summer that they weren’t going to use. Clearly, we were helped a little bit by the overall softness, and found it a little easier to find a short-term slot, but that’s a short-tem deal, not a long-term deal,” Kellner says.

Boeing confident of Australian Wedgetail review

By Stephen Trimble

Boeing is confident that a review of Australia’s delayed Wedgetail airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system programme will support the technology for service entry.

The Australian government has commissioned an independent review of the basic workings of the modified 737-700’s Northrop Grumman multi-role electronic scanned array (MESA) radar, suggesting concerns about its fundamental soundness.

The eight-year-old Wedgetail acquisition programme is running about three years behind schedule, with delays caused by issues with airframe modifications and developmental problems with the aircraft’s MESA radar and electronic warfare system.

© Boeing

Despite the programme’s legacy, Egan Greenstein, Boeing’s senior manager for AEW&C, says the company has made significant progress over the past few months. The US Federal Aviation Administration has granted a supplemental type certificate for the Wedgetail platform, and five of Australia’s six aircraft have reached flying status, he adds.

“We feel confident in every way that they’re going to find that the foundation of the radar is sound, that we’re on the right path and there are no weaknesses with the system,” says Greenstein.

“If there was something fundamental that was a problem, then, sure, every programme is at risk in any country,” Greenstein says. “We’re confident that’s not going to be the finding and we will proceed with development and fielding.”

Canberra has commissioned the Lincoln Laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to evaluate the MESA radar’s architecture .

Unlike the Boeing E-3 Sentry airborne warning and control system, the MESA radar does not employ a movable antenna to sweep for targets. Its active array is designed to electronically steer the radar beam over a 360° range nearly instantly.

But the MESA design employs some unique features compared to even active electronically scanned arrays. The transmit/receive modules, for example, are installed in the roof of the aircraft cabin, rather than directly behind the emitter in the “top hat” array.

Airbus awaits approval for A320 MTOW enhancement

By David Kaminski-Morrow

Airbus is still waiting for European certification for its A320 enhancement to increase maximum take-off weight to 78t.

But the airframer is expecting imminent approval for International Aero Engines V2500-powered aircraft, with CFM International CFM56 variants following shortly.

The enhancement, for which US carrier JetBlue will be the first customer, takes advantage of the type’s load-alleviation function to improve the MTOW by about 1t.

Airbus says the modification, which requires a software upgrade to the elevator and aileron control computer, can be applied to aircraft later than MSN1903, owing to structural reinforcement of the horizontal stabiliser.

Aircraft MSN1903 is a 2002 example currently in service with Lan Argentina.

Airbus A320-family director of product marketing Stuart Mann, speaking during a briefing in Hamburg, said the European approval for the V2500-equipped variant was due “any day” and that the CFM56 clearance would come “later”.

NASA review likely to favour ISS

NASA‘s once formidable return to the Moon programme is to be brought back to low Earth orbit as budget realities, technological hurdles and political preferences revive US interest in the International Space Station.

“We were looking at an outpost on the Moonand that one is being revisited. It will probably be less than an outpost on the Moon,” NASA acting administrator Christopher Scolese told the US House of Representatives’ on 29 April about NASA’s goals.

Scolese’s comment reflects a recent NASA history of lower than projected budgets leaving the agency with inadequate resources to meet the original goals of former president George Bush’s 2020 Moon return, announced in 2004. This lack of funds has led to vocal dissent about the Constellation programme that NASA designed with its Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) to achieve Bush’s Moon return.

Now the new president wants a review of US human spaceflight plans, which he announced on 7 May along with the space agency’s fiscal year 2010 budget. US government fiscal years run from 1 October to 30 September.

Carleton Bailie
© Carleton Bailie
USAF EELVs like this Boeing Delta IV are unlikely to launch NASA’s Orion

Beyond a $250 million rise in FY2009 due to president Barack Obama’s fiscal stimulus, Constellation’s budget is projected to be flat from 2010 to 2014, reflecting the Bush administration’s funding reality.

The review has already meant that NASA’s Altair lunar lander and Ares V cargo launch vehicle design contracts have been frozen. And the situation may get worse for Constellation’s Ares rockets and spacecraft. The human spaceflight review is a technical one, examining Constellation’s transport system. But while it will accept data on alternatives, such as the US Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, ditching Constellation’s rockets is not a set goal. Flight International understands that a 2005 Aerospace Corporation report about human rating, which included EELVs, combined with ESAS evidence, is likely to see the USAF rockets ruled out for launching Constellation’s Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV).

Instead, to achieve the existing Orion 2015 maiden flight target, NASA appears to be scaling back the CEV’s capabilities. Constellation manager Jeffrey Hanley has said Orion will have a crew of four instead of six and Flight International has documents that show software functions being dropped from early flights. This would ensure software verification can be achieved by 2015.

With reduced capabilities for Orion and a 2015 first flight to the ISS, if NASA were to end its involvement in the station in 2016 the CEV would visit the outpost three or four times and then have nowhere to go.

The man who would make the ISS extension recommendation is the review’s leader, former Lockheed Martin chief executive and 1990 US space programme advisory committee chairman, Norman Augustine. Another member of the 1990 review, George Abbey, a former NASA Johnson Space Center director, says that Augustine and his team “made a great case for a space station [in 1990] and why we needed to do research on station to do a lunar, Mars programme”.

At the agency’s 7 May FY2010 budget briefing NASA comptroller David Schurr said: “As a result of the review, we might see a remix of the prioritiesthe splits between Constellation and Advanced Capabilities may be updated”. Advanced Capabilities is NASA’s research and development programme for its Constellation vehicles’ technologies.

Technologies for the Moon and Mars vehicles could be tested on the ISS. NASA space operations officials said last month that extended ISS use means planning for new procurement contracts has to start soon. Schurr says: “If the decision is made to extend the [use of] ISS, additional investments in spares and batteries may be needed.” While ISS assembly completion should happen in 2010, humanity’s first permanently manned outpost is set to last beyond the next decade.

Contingency plans takes priority for Iberia

By Graham Dunn

Spanish carrier Iberia’s chief executive Fernando Conte remains confident of completing merger negotiations with oneworld partner British Airways, but is putting his immediate focus on contingency measures to counter the downturn.

Iberia detailed contingency measures aimed at generating cost savings of up to €125 million ($170 million) and cutting investment spend up to €90 million after its losses widened in the first quarter. Iberia made a first quarter net loss of €92.6 million after revenues were sharply hit by the economic downturn, compounded by a pilots’ work-to-rule and weather cancellations in January. Total revenues fell 15.6% to €1.05 billion for the period, including a 26% and 17% fall in cargo and passenger revenues in the first quarter respectively.

Contingency measures include increasing its planned capacity cuts for the year from 1.7% to 4.3%, led by cuts in the domestic and medium-haul market. These cuts will see Iberia ground five Airbus A320s and pushback delivery of an A340-600 from October into September 2010.

“We are ready to make further cuts if necessary, but we think this reduction will be enough,” says Conte. While reiterating recent guidance that the carrier is unlikely to make a profit this year if current conditions persist, Conte addsIberia’s contingency actions mean it envisages a return to profit in 2010 if fuel price remain at current levels “even at today’s traffic revenue figures”.

Iberia has been in merger talks with its oneworld partner British Airways since the summer and theseappeared to be gaining momentum earlier this year. “We continue with our negotiations with BA,” says Conte, noting they have taken longer than originally forseen. “But we are currently mainly focused on our own contingency plan and its targets which we believe is the most important and immediate challenge for our company. However, we remain positive on the outcome of the negotiations.”

Pinnacle investigating Colgan Q400 tire issue

Colgan parent Pinnacle Airlines Corporation says it is investigating an incident involving a Bombardier Q400 aircraft operated by Colgan that experienced an issue upon landing in Buffalo during a 12 May flight.

The Toronto Sun reported the Q400 lost one of its right wheels upon landing at Buffalo International airport.

A spokeswoman for Pinnacle confirms the company is “investigating what happened to the tire”, and emphasizes that all passengers deplaned safely.

Q400 Tyre

© The Toronto Sun

The incident coincided with the start of hearings conducted by the US National Transportation Safety Board as part of its continuing investigation of a Colgan Q400 that crashed on approach to Buffalo in 12 February. Much of the three-day hearing focused on the crew’s breach of sterile cockpit rules, and the role pilot fatigue could have played in the fatal accident.

TSA Moves Closer To Secure Flight

By John M. Doyle

The Transportation Security Administration has moved a step closer to pre-screening all air passengers before they board their flights.

Secure Flight, the long-delayed computerized screening program, has begun requiring passengers to submit their full name when making airline reservations. Passengers will have to enter their names as they appear on the government-issued identification with which they will travel.

The new requirement, announced May 15, is the first step in shifting the responsibility for checking passenger names against government watch lists from the airlines to the federal government.

Since 2004, TSA has been working on the Secure Flight technology, recommended by the 9/11 Commission and required by a 2007 law. The second phase of the program is slated for Aug. 15, when passengers will be required to enter their date of birth and gender when booking flights.

TSA’s goal is to vet 100% of passengers on domestic commercial flights by early 2010 and all passengers on international commercial flights by the end of 2010.

Meanwhile, congressional auditors say Secure Flight has achieved nine of the 10 conditions set by Congress in order to move forward with the program. Those conditions include testing the efficacy and accuracy of search tools, emplacing a redress process for passengers claiming they were wrongly included on watch lists and developing security measures to prevent unauthorized access to the system by computer hackers. On the 10th requirement, developing appropriate cost and schedule estimates, the Government Accountability Office found Secure Flight has conditionally achieved Congress’ requirement. Conditional achievement means TSA has completed some key activities and has defined plans for reaching the remaining ones.

Photo: TSA

New C-17s Not Needed, DOD Analysis Shows

By Amy Butler

Early indications from the Pentagon’s Mobility Capabilities Requirements Study suggest no need for additional strategic airlift beyond the funded procurements of re-engined C-5s and 205 C-17s already planned, says U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Norton Schwartz.

The 2005 Mobility Capabilities Study had suggested a requirement of roughly 300 strategic airlifters, and Schwartz says he sees “no major shift in the demand signal.” The 2005 study, however, was discredited in much of Washington as a budget-driven formality under former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and a new study has been eagerly awaited.

The new study is now under way, although official results are not expected until the fall. Unlike previous reviews, this study will take into account the requirements associated with increases in Army and Marine Corps end-strength, as well as the new U.S. Africa Command.

Even if more strategic airlift is ultimately needed, Air Force Secretary Michael Donley says an independent study presents several options before considering a buy of additional C-17s, the only aircraft made at Boeing’s Long Beach, Calif., plant.

These include leasing additional Civil Reserve Air Fleet capacity, as well as re-engining all 111 C-5s. Now, the C-5 Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP) calls for modifying only 49 C-5Bs, two C-5Cs and one A model for test purposes.

Boeing’s C-17 program has survived in recent years on congressional earmarks and international orders. The USAF also has nonetheless wished to retire its worst C-5s.

Meanwhile, the first C-5 of the 46 to be inducted into the M-model upgrade production line is slated to arrive at Lockheed Martin’s Marietta, Ga., facility in August with delivery following a year later.

This single C-5 will make up the low-rate-initial-production phase of the C-5M RERP upgrade program. The M upgrade includes a new propulsion system as well as improvements to several bad actors on the aircraft, including hydraulics and landing gear, says Lorraine Martin, vice president of the C-5 Reliability Enhancement and Re-Engining Program for prime contractor Lockheed Martin.

Three C-5s were modified with the M upgrade during the development phase of the program; two were C-5Bs and one was a C-5A.

Operational test and evaluation for the C-5M is slated to begin in September, lasting at least three months. The C-5M includes the General Electric CF6-80C2 engine, which Martin says provides 22 percent more thrust per aircraft. The C-5M can climb to 31,000-feet altitude in 19 minutes carrying 120,000 pounds of cargo compared to the C-5A/B’s 33 minutes to climb to 24,000 feet, Martin says.

Aside from the performance, Lockheed Martin is making some predictions related to the cost of the program. Reduced maintenance of the newer propulsion systems and replacement of the bad parts on the C-5 will “save” $9 billion over the life of the aircraft in the cost of operations and sustainment, Martin says. This is after the $6 billion cost to procure and install the kits, she says.

It is unknown whether shutting down the F-22 line in Marietta, Ga., where the C-5 work is handled by Lockheed, will impact the cost of the RERP effort.

The operational test and evaluation is expected to begin in September and last up to four months.

Photo: USAF

Spacewalkers Overcome Obstacles To Repair

Frank Morring, Jr./Johnson Space Center

Further mission updates are being posted at the On Space blog, where this file also appeared.

Spacewalkers managed to repair a defunct instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope today, but it seemed that everything that could go wrong went wrong.

The job wouldn’t have been easy even if everything had worked as advertised, because some 111 unattached screws stood between astronaut Mike Massimino and the circuit board he needed to change out in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS).

One of the first four of them got stuck, its head apparently stripped so Massimino’s power tool head couldn’t grip it. After trying another tool head without success, controllers here and at Goddard Space Flight Center concluded it would be safe just to break it off to get a handhold out of they way that was blocking access to the STIS cover.

Once Massimino had done that – a task that required an estimated 60 pounds of pressure on the handhold to break the stuck screw – he had to install a green capture plate on the STIS cover. The plate was designed to hold the remaining screws so they wouldn’t get loose and foul the inside of the telescope.

That job was a little tricky too, because a gasket apparently was out of place and Massinimo had to straighten it. He did, and the plate slipped into place.

Murphy wasn’t done yet. With the capture plate in place, Massimino pulled out a special “mini” power tool to crank the screws out. It wouldn’t start.

“Oh for Pete’s sake,” he exclaimed.

Ultimately Massinimo was sent back to the airlock for a spare tool, and to recharge the oxygen in his spacesuit because it was clear the extravehicular activity (EVA) would run longer than the planned six and a half hours. The backup tool worked, and the veteran Hubble repairman made fairly short work of unscrewing the fasteners and pulling off the cover with the capture plate. The loose screws could be seen rattling around inside their plastic enclosures.

Next on the agenda was replacing the power supply circuit board in the STIS that failed in 2004. That job went well, but it took a little wrestling match for Massinimo and EVA partner Mike Good to get the capture plate and STIS cover into a stowage box securely. After that Massinimo was able to install a replacement cover that substituted two simple latches for all the screws, finishing the job more than two hours late. The task took so long that controllers here decided not to tackle the second job of the spacewalk — replacing some degraded thermal blankets on one of the telescope’s doors – and ordered the two spacewalkers to wrap it up.

Photo credit: NASA TV